A pus moth caterpillar with a long tail of hairs (photo: G. Lenhard, kristinfrey.com). Black-Wave Flannel Moth Caterpillar (Megalopyge crispata) Very similar in appearance to the puss moth caterpillar in their final larval stage, they can be commonly found in a younger . Described and named (as Phalena plumata caudata) by Petiver in , the luna moth was the first North American saturniid to be reported in the literature (Tuskes et al. ). The original Latin name of the luna moth which referred to the long tails was lost when Linnaeus converted the name to a binomial with the specific epithet luna in
Most people know that bees, wasps, hornets and some ants can sting to defend themselves or their nests. Only a few people realize, usually from first- hand experience, that handling some caterpillars can produce some painful results. Recognizing the few stinging caterpillar species in Kentucky may prevent irritating encounters. Caterpillars are immature stages of moths lonf butterflies that often have spines and barbed hooks. With most species, these are for show and are quite harmless.
But we have several few stinging caterpillars of various shapes, sizes and colors. We are fortunate that only the caterpillar stage of these what does avis mean in latin sting, the adults do not how to identify ash tree disease stinging hairs.
This factsheet describes some of the more commonly encountered stinging ot in Kentucky which cause serious reactions. There are other less common stinging caterpillars and others common ones which may cause less severe reactions which are not listed here. Stinging caterpillars caterpillwr hollow quill-like hairs, connected to poison sacs, which are used as defensive weapons.
When these hairs are touched they pierce the skin releasing poison. Reactions can range from a mild itching to the more severe pain, swelling, blistering, dermatitis, and even intestinal disturbances. We have many species of silkworm caterpillars in Kentucky, but only two members of this group possess poisonous spines. These are large leaf feeding caterpillars with caterpjllar spines over the body.
Some moths in this family represent some of the most colorful and showiest moths in the commonwealth. The mature two-inch caterpillar is brown to purplish black with numerous yellow spots. The body is clothed with branched black spines that may have red or black tips.
These can be quite common on oak or willow trees from spring to mid-summer. They are commonly encountered when mature larvae wander off the trees where they fed in search of places to pupate.
There is a single generation a year. The caterpillar is overall light green to yellow, but along each side there is a narrow red line bordered below by a white line.
Mature caterpillars are two inches in length and covered with branched, black-pointed yellow spines. They feed on a wide variety of plants including corn, roses, willow, linden, elm, oak, locust, apple, beech, ash, currant, and clover.
There are several species of flannel caterpillars that may be encountered. The most commonly reported ones are the puss moth caterpillar and the white flannel moth caterpillar, but others in the group also possess stinging hairs. Unlike other stinging caterpillars the venomous spines are hidden underneath longer silky hairs. The shorter venomous spines from these may cause a painful sting and swelling that may last for days.
This one-inch caterpillar is covered with a dense wooly coat of soft brown hair, with hairs at the rear end tail-like. Beneath the long hair are numerous short poisonous spines that can cause severe irritation. They are found feeding on various trees and shrubs, including apple, elm, maple, hackberry, caterpjllar, sycamore and others. Young caterpillars often feed in groups. Sting severity increases with size of caterpillar. Puss caterpillar stings are often more severe than those of other caterpillars.
Very similar in appearance to the puss moth caterpillar in their final larval stage, they can be commonly found in a younger stages which look somewhat different from mature larvae. The younger larvae bear long white wispy hairs. They feed on a wide variety of hardwood plants and can be common in late summer.
The sting of black wave flannel moth is usually not a severe as the puss caterpillar. The yellow body is marked with wide black stripe down the back bordered with red at each end. There are 11 pairs of raised yellow tuffs along this strip bearing hairs setae.
There are smaller tuffs along each side of the body. The dark long silky hairs do not catrrpillar, but shorter needle like hairs at the base of the tuffs are stinging. The larvae can be found on redbud, honey locust, hackberry, mimosa and beech.
Larvae occur later in how to bake tortilla shells summer. Slug caterpillars are short and stocky and creep about on leaves in a slug-like manner. The head and legs are not visible from above. Typically, there is one generation per year with the grown larvae found in the late summer. The caterpillar is brown in front and rear, green in the middle with a purple spot in the center of the green saddle.
There are two prominent horns on both the front and rear. Stings by this insect can cause severe irritation. Saddlebacks can be common are typically found on deciduous trees such as basswood, chestnut, cherry, oak, and plum, but occasionally they can be numerous on corn. A bizarre caterpillar that resembles a dried leaf. The caterpillar is brown with nine pairs of fleshy lobes, all with stinging how to get a job at the humane society. It is catrrpillar on lower branches of assorted trees and shrubs, including oak, chestnut, dogwood, sassafras and ash.
The caterpillars are usually seen feeding on the undersides of leaves. A yellow to red spiny caterpillar with black and blue stripes down the middle of its back and less distinct red, blue and black stripes along the side of the body. There are prominent spiny yellow horns on the front, rear and center of the body. They can be found feeding on bushes and low tree branches of redbud, oak, hickory, bayberry, wild cherry and sycamore.
The pale yellow green caterpillar has four dark patches of spines toward the rear and numerous spiny, yellow or red fleshy lobes. Grown caterpillars have a brown area on back. It feeds on oak, beech, chestnut, willow, pear, bayberry, sour wood, wild cherry and other trees.
It is less venomous than the saddleback caterpillar. Most encounters with stinging caterpillars result from accidently brushing against leaves on which they are feeding. The chances of running into these insects are relatively low, but occasionally one species may be very abundant. Also the more time spent in wooded areas, the greater the opportunity for contact.
Most of these caterpillars are distinctly marked or brightly colored. We how to connect epson wireless printer to pc this warning coloration. This categpillar allow you to see and avoid them. If you find one on yourself, don't brush it off or slap it with a bare hand.
Use a stick or other object to remove it carefully. Hollow spines may break off in clothing or gloves. No really effective home first how to translate a pdf from dutch to english treatments for caterpillar stings are available.
Adhesive tape or transparent tape may be used to pull out some of the broken spines in the sting area. Washing the area thoroughly caterpiplar soap and water may help remove some of the irritating venom.
Prompt application of an ice pack or baking soda may help llong reduce pain and prevent swelling. Antihistaminic drugs, often administered for bee and wasp stings, are reportedly ineffective. See a physician if severe reactions occur. Very young, aged or unhealthy persons are more likely to suffer severe reaction symptoms. Generally, stinging caterpillars are infrequently encountered and preventive sprays are not recommended.
When single caterpillars are found, often the leaf or stem they are on can be clipped and relocated. But where stinging caterpillars are numerous or present hazards to persons, such as around residences, recreation areas or schools, infested shrubs and trees may be sprayed to eliminate or reduce the caterpillars. Use products containing Bacillius thuringiensis or carbaryl for control. Always read and follow label instructions. The use of some products may not be legal in your state or country.
Please check with ho local county agent or regulatory official before using any pesticide mentioned in this publication. Stinging Caterpillars.
Figure caterppillar Urticating hair tip of a saddleback caterpillar showing the pore near the tip from which the toxin is secreted and the weakened ring where the tip breaks off the spine.
Giant Silkworm Caterpillars Family Saturniidae We have many species of silkworm caterpillars in Kentucky, but only two members of this group possess poisonous spines. Buck Moth Hemileuca maia The mature two-inch caterpillar is brown to purplish black with numerous yellow spots. Figure 2. A mature buck moth caterpillar. Io Moth Automeris io The caterpillar is overall light green to yellow, but along each side there fo a narrow red line bordered below by a white line.
Figure 3. A mature Io moth caterpillar. Flannel Moth Caterpillars Family Meglopygidae There are several species of flannel caterpillars that may be encountered. Puss Caterpillar Caterpillar to moth how long opercularis This one-inch caterpillar is covered with a dense wooly coat of soft brown hair, with hairs mtoh the rear end tail-like.
Figure 4. A pus moth caterpillar with a long tail of hairs photo: G. Lenhard, Bugwood.
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The luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus , is arguably our most beautiful moth. Examples of its popularity include its appearance on a first class United States postage stamp issued in Figure 1 ; its selection to grace the front cover of A Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America Covell ; and the use of an animated luna moth in the television commercials for the sleep aid Lunesta.
Figure 1. In , the United States Post Office issued a first class stamp with the image of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Photograph by Donald W. Described and named as Phalena plumata caudata by Petiver in , the luna moth was the first North American saturniid to be reported in the literature Tuskes et al.
The original Latin name of the luna moth which referred to the long tails was lost when Linnaeus converted the name to a binomial with the specific epithet luna in The family name Saturniidae is based on the eyespots of some members of the family that contain concentric rings reminiscent of the planet Saturn Powell The luna moth gets its name from its moon-like spots.
Usually found in forested areas. In southern Canada it occurs from Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan. In the United States, it is found in every eastern state from Maine south to Florida and west to eastern Texas and eastern North Dakota. Adults: The adult wingspan is 75 to mm Covell Adult luna moths are large green moths with a long tail on each hind wing and discal eyespots on both the fore and hind wings Figures 2 and 3.
The luna moth is univoltine one generation from Michigan northward, bivoltine throughout the Ohio Valley, and trivoltine southward Tuskes et al. In Louisiana and Florida, adults may be found during every month of the year Also, reared specimens often differ in coloration from those in nature Ferguson Figure 2. Adult male luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Figure 3. Adult female luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus.
Photograph by Lyle J. Adults of the spring brood in multivoltine two or more generations populations are typically a deeper green with reddish-purple wing margins while those of later broods are more yellowish with yellowish margins Packard , Tuskes et al.
Moths from southern populations tend to be smaller. Luna antennae are quadripectinate comb-like on four sides with those of males being larger than those of females. Males are more yellowish-green while females are more blue-green in color Packard Eggs: The slightly oval eggs are white, mottled with the brown adhesive Figure 4.
Maximum reported dimensions in millimeters are 1. Figure 4. Eggs of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Larvae: The bright green full-grown caterpillars are 55 to 70 mm in length Godfrey et al. There is a yellowish-white sub-spiracular line on abdominal segments one through seven and posterior yellow lines extending across the dorsum of segments one through seven to just above the level of the spiracles.
A mid-segmental transverse band of setae-bearing scoli occurs on all thoracic segments and abdominal segments one through eight.
The body is sparsely covered with short, white, spatulate setae. The head varies from green to brown. Just prior to pupation, caterpillars turn a reddish color.
Early instars Figures differ considerably in appearance from the later instars. Packard provides color drawings and detailed descriptions of each of the five larval instars, but it should be noted that there is some variation in larvae from the same egg batch as well as considerable variation in larvae from different populations.
Larvae of all instars reared by the author differ markedly in appearance from those illustrated by Packard. Some fifth instars are considerably more setiferous hairy than others even among siblings Figures 9 and Packard gave the following lengths for the five instars: 1st instar: 6 to 8 mm, 2nd instar: 9 to 10 mm, 3rd instar: 13 to 15 mm, 4th instar: 23 mm, 5th instar: 65 mm.
Figure 5. First instar larva of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Figure 6. Second instar larva of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus.
Figure 7. Third instar larva of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Figure 8. Fourth instar larva of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Figure 9. Fifth last instar larva of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Figure Fifth last instar larva more sertiferous of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus.
Cocoon and Pupa: The single-layered cocoon is wrapped in leaves Figure The dark brown, posterior end of the obtect wings and appendages are appressed to the body - most abdominal segments are immovable pupa Figure 12 is anchored to a pad of silk at the rear of the cocoon by a cremaster hooked spines Figure 13 which allows the adult to emerge from the pupal exoskeleton.
Cocoon of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Pupa of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Lateral view. Female pupae Figure 14 may be distinguished from males Figure 15 by the presence of two longitudinal notches on the ventral surface of the fourth and fifth totally exposed abdominal segments.
These notches are lacking in males. Female pupa of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Note the two longitudinal notches on the ventral surface of the fourth and fifth totally exposed abdominal segments. Male pupa of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus.
The adult moth escapes the pupal case by splitting it at the anterior end and pushing the top up Figure It then cuts its way from the cocoon Figure 17 by the use of serrated, chitinous spurs on its thorax near the bases of the front wings Hilton , Priddle Cut away of cocoon with split pupal exuvium of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus.
Emergence exit hole in cocoon of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus. Adult eclosion emergence from pupa typically occurs in the morning with males usually beginning emergence several days before females.
Morning emergence allows time for expansion and drying of the wings prior to the evening flight period. Also, during the first day after emergence, the moth voids the reddish-colored, liquid meconium which is composed of the breakdown waste products of the old larval tissues. The adults are strongly attracted to light — particularly UV wavelengths. There has been some concern that light pollution from man-made sources particularly mercury vapor street lights may deter lunas and other silk moths from mating and have a negative impact on their populations in urban areas Worth and Muller Males are strong fliers and may disperse over relatively long distances.
Females release a sex-attractant pheromone and may attract males from a distance. Mating usually takes place during the first couple of hours after midnight.
Adults have vestigial mouthparts and do not feed. Therefore, they are short-lived. Females begin laying eggs the following evening after mating and continue for several nights Tuskes et al. At least in captivity and probably also in nature, the eggs may be laid either singly or in small clusters.
Caterpillars are solitary Tuskes et al. Caterpillars exposed to short photoperiods produce diapausing pupae while those exposed to long photoperiods produce non-diapausing pupae Wright When caterpillars are full-grown, they may begin to wander.
The cocoon is spun among the leaves of the deciduous host plants but is not anchored to a twig as is the case with many polyphemus moth cocoons. Therefore, they fall to the ground in autumn Holland as the leaves fall and are not commonly seen. Development from hatching to pupation takes a month or longer depending on temperature.
Luna moth caterpillars are never sufficiently common to cause significant damage to their host trees. Broadleaf host plants belonging to a large number of genera have been reported as hosts for luna moths Godfrey et al.
However, some of the reported host plants may not be suitable for all populations of lunas. Lindroth et al. It appears that different geographical populations of luna moths are adapted to different host plants Lindroth et al. Northernmost populations most often utilize white birch, Betula papyrifera Marsh, as a host. More southerly populations use a variety of host plants particularly members of the walnut family Juglandaceae walnuts [ Juglans ] and hickories, [ Carya ] [ Figure 18 ] ; sumacs Rhus Figure 19 ; sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua L.
Figure 20 ; and persimmon, Diospyros virginiana L. Figure 21 Tuskes et al. Villard lists hickory as the preferred host, but recommends that rearing be done in sleeves or cages on living plants since most hickories wilt rapidly when cut. This obstacle can be overcome by diligently supplying fresh food. Sweetgum works well for captive rearing. Pignut hickory, Carya glabra Mill. Sweet, a host of the luna moth, Actias luna Linnaeus.
Winged sumac, Rhus copallinum L.
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