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Jan 19, · When you open the vent on an expanded tank, fuel vapors will escape. If the tank is sucked in, opening the vent will allow air into the tank to equalize the pressure. For safety reasons, opening the vent should be done off the boat on a level surface with good air circulation in the area and no ignition source present, even cell phones. Hearthstone’s newest expansion is live! Log-in now and bust open your packs! March 30, The Pet Battle Bonus Event Has Begun! World of Warcraft. Mar The Pet Battle Bonus Event Has Begun! Bring out your most stalwart companions for battle, because this week’s Bonus Event is underway.
Control joints in concrete are provided at regular interval to from a weak plane, so that cracks are formed at the joints but not in undesired places. Control joints are provided in concrete pavements, slabs, walls, floors, dams, canal linings, bridge, retaining walls etc. When concrete is placed, due to shrinkage, creep and thermal movement concrete tends to reduce in size due to which small cracks are formed in the concrete at weak zone.
Concrete tends to shrink or reduce in size when it starts hardening. This shrinkage of concrete creates tensile stresses in the concrete which develops the minute cracks at the weak how to calculate the phase angle. These cracks are restricted and prevent the formation of large cracks due to the presence of reinforcement in the concrete.
But if its unreinforced concrete, the small cracks tends to develop into a large cracks at irregular interval. To prevent such cracks, control joints must be installed at appropriate intervals.
It is also recommended to install these joints in reinforced concrete too. Generally these joints are pre-defined in the drawings given by designer or architect. If not defined, they will be in a regular pattern or be an integral part of the architectural features.
Control joints form a convenient point at which to stop concrete work at the end of the day. Control joints should never be formed in the middle of a bay. Control joint is placed at the location of highest concentration of tensile stresses resulting from shrinkage are expected:.
Expansion joints are placed in concrete to prevent expansive cracks formed due to temperature change. Concrete undergoes expansion due to high temperature when in a confined boundary which leads to cracks. Expansion joints are provided in slabs, pavements, buildings, bridges, sidewalks, railway tracks, piping systems, ships, and other structures. Concrete is not an elastic substance, and therefore it does not bend or stretch without failure. However, concrete moves during expansion and shrinkage, due to which the structural elements shift slightly.
To prevent harmful effects due to concrete movement, several expansion joints are incorporated in concrete construction, including foundations, walls, roof expansion joints, and paving slabs. These joints need to be carefully designed, located, and installed.
If a slab is positioned continuously on surfaces exceeding one face, an expansion joint will be necessary to reduce stresses. Concrete sealer may be used for the filling of gaps produced by cracks.
Based on the type of material used in making of joint, expansion joints are further classified into following types. Join Join TheConstructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. Have an account? Log in Now. Join for free or log in to continue reading Remember Me! Don't have account, Join Here. Forgot Password Lost your password?
Ask A Question. Control Joint vs. Expansion Joint Difference. Fig 1: Cracks formed due to shrinkage of concrete. Fig 2: Forming of vertical contraction joint. Fig 3: Cross section of expansion joint. Previous article. Next article. Related Posts.
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Mar 31, · Romney, a Republican, has also supported an expansion of the child tax credit but has proposed a different method to pay for the change in the long term. Romney’s proposal would expand the credit to $4, a year for children under 6 and $3, for those ages 6 to Femme is most often a term used to describe a lesbian who exhibits a feminine identity. It is sometimes used by feminine gay men, bisexuals, and transgender individuals. The word femme itself comes from French and means 'woman'.. Heavily associated with lesbian history and culture, femme has been used among lesbians to distinguish traditionally feminine lesbians from their butch (i.e. A tank is an armored fighting vehicle intended as a primary offensive weapon in front-line ground kristinfrey.com designs are a balance of heavy firepower, strong armor, and good battlefield mobility provided by tracks and a powerful engine; usually their main armament is mounted in a kristinfrey.com are a mainstay of modern 20th and 21st century ground forces and a key part of combined arms combat.
A tank is an armored fighting vehicle intended as a primary offensive weapon in front-line ground combat. Tank designs are a balance of heavy firepower , strong armor , and good battlefield mobility provided by tracks and a powerful engine ; usually their main armament is mounted in a turret. They are a mainstay of modern 20th and 21st century ground forces and a key part of combined arms combat.
Modern tanks are versatile mobile land weapons platforms whose main armament is a large- caliber tank gun mounted in a rotating gun turret , supplemented by machine guns or other ranged weapons such as anti-tank guided missiles or rocket launchers. They have heavy vehicle armor which provides protection for the crew, the vehicle's munition storage, fuel tank and propulsion systems. These features enable the tank to perform well in a variety of intense combat situations, simultaneously both offensively with direct fire from their powerful main gun and defensively as fire support and defilade for friendly troops due to the near invulnerability to common infantry small arms and good resistance against most heavier weapons , all while maintaining the mobility needed to exploit changing tactical situations.
Until the arrival of the main battle tank , tanks were typically categorized either by weight class light , medium , heavy or superheavy tanks or doctrinal purpose breakthrough- , cavalry- , infantry- or reconnaissance tanks. Some being larger and very heavily armored and with large guns, while others are smaller, lightly armored, and equipped with a smaller caliber and lighter gun.
These smaller tanks move over terrain with speed and agility and can perform a reconnaissance role in addition to engaging enemy targets. The smaller, faster tank would not normally engage in battle with a larger, heavily armored tank, except during a surprise flanking manoeuvre. The modern tank is the result of a century of development from the first primitive armored vehicles, due to improvements in technology such as the internal combustion engine, which allowed the rapid movement of heavy armored vehicles.
As a result of these advances, tanks underwent tremendous shifts in capability in the years since their first appearance. Tanks in World War I were developed separately and simultaneously by Great Britain and France as a means to break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front.
While the British and French built thousands of tanks in World War I, Germany was unconvinced of the tank's potential, and did not have enough resources, thus it built only twenty. Tanks of the interwar period evolved into the much larger and more powerful designs of World War II.
Less than two weeks later, Germany began their large-scale armored campaigns that would become known as blitzkrieg "lightning war" — massed concentrations of tanks combined with motorized and mechanized infantry , artillery and air power designed to break through the enemy front and collapse enemy resistance.
The widespread introduction of high-explosive anti-tank warheads during the second half of World War II led to lightweight infantry-carried anti-tank weapons such as the Panzerfaust , which could destroy some types of tanks.
Tanks in the Cold War were designed with these weapons in mind, and led to greatly improved armor types during the s, especially composite armor. Improved engines, transmissions and suspensions allowed tanks of this period to grow larger. Aspects of gun technology changed significantly as well, with advances in shell design and aiming technology.
During the Cold War , the main battle tank concept arose and became a key component of modern armies. Modern tanks are more frequently organized into combined arms units which involve the support of infantry , who may accompany the tanks in infantry fighting vehicles , and supported by reconnaissance or ground-attack aircraft.
The tank is the 20th century realization of an ancient concept: that of providing troops with mobile protection and firepower. The internal combustion engine , armor plate , and continuous track were key innovations leading to the invention of the modern tank. Many sources imply that Leonardo da Vinci and H. Wells in some way foresaw or "invented" the tank. Leonardo's late 15th century drawings of what some describe as a "tank" show a man-powered, wheeled vehicle with cannons all around it. However the human crew would not have enough power to move it over larger distance, and usage of animals was problematic in a space so confined.
The continuous "caterpillar" track arose from attempts to improve the mobility of wheeled vehicles by spreading their weight, reducing ground pressure, and increasing their traction. Experiments can be traced back as far as the 17th century, and by the late nineteenth they existed in various recognizable and practical forms in several countries. It is frequently claimed that Richard Lovell Edgeworth created a caterpillar track.
It is true that in he patented a "machine, that should carry and lay down its own road", but this was Edgeworth's choice of words. His own account in his autobiography is of a horse-drawn wooden carriage on eight retractable legs, capable of lifting itself over high walls. The description bears no similarity to a caterpillar track. The machines described in Wells' short story The Land Ironclads are a step closer, insofar as they are armor-plated, have an internal power plant, and are able to cross trenches.
However, Wells' vehicles were driven by steam and moved on pedrail wheels , technologies that were already outdated at the time of writing. After seeing British tanks in , Wells denied having "invented" them, writing, "Yet let me state at once that I was not their prime originator.
I took up an idea, manipulated it slightly, and handed it on. The first combinations of the three principal components of the tank appeared in the decade before World War One. Major William E. Donohue, of the British Army's Mechanical Transport Committee, suggested fixing a gun and armored shield on a British type of track-driven vehicle. However, all were restricted to rails or reasonably passable terrain. It was the development of a practical caterpillar track that provided the necessary independent, all-terrain mobility.
In a memorandum of , Antarctic explorer Robert Falcon Scott presented his view that man-hauling to the South Pole was impossible and that motor traction was needed. Scott died during the expedition in , but expedition member and biographer Apsley Cherry-Garrard credited Scott's "motors" with the inspiration for the British World War I tanks, writing: "Scott never knew their true possibilities; for they were the direct ancestors of the 'tanks' in France". Various individuals continued to contemplate the use of tracked vehicles for military applications, but by the outbreak of the War no one in a position of responsibility in any army gave much thought to tanks.
The direct military impact of the tank can be debated but its effect on the Germans was immense, it caused bewilderment, terror and concern in equal measure. It was also a huge boost to the civilians at home. After facing the Zeppelins, at last Britain had a wonder weapon.
Tanks were taken on tours and treated almost like film stars. From late a small number of middle-ranking British Army officers tried to persuade the War Office and the Government to consider the creation of armored vehicles. Amongst their suggestions was the use of caterpillar tractors, but although the Army used many such vehicles for towing heavy guns, it could not be persuaded that they could be adapted as armored vehicles.
The consequence was that early tank development in the United Kingdom was carried out by the Royal Navy. So many played a part in its long and complicated development that it is not possible to name any individual as the sole inventor of the tank. The first order for tanks was placed on 12 February , and a second on 21 April. Fosters built 37 all "male" , and Metropolitan Railway Carriage and Wagon Company , of Birmingham, 38 "male" and 75 "female" , a total of It is really to Mr Winston Churchill that the credit is due more than to anyone else.
He took up with enthusiasm the idea of making them a long time ago, and he met with many difficulties. He converted me, and at the Ministry of Munitions he went ahead and made them. The admiralty experts were invaluable, and gave the greatest possible assistance. They are, of course, experts in the matter of armor plating. Major Stern , formerly an officer in the Royal Naval Air Service a business man at the Ministry of Munitions had charge of the work of getting them built, and he did the task very well.
Col Swinton and others also did valuable work. Whilst several experimental machines were investigated in France, it was a colonel of artillery, J. Estienne , who directly approached the Commander-in-Chief with detailed plans for a tank on caterpillar tracks, in late The result was two largely unsatisfactory types of tank, each of the Schneider and Saint-Chamond , both based on the Holt Tractor. In addition to the traversible turret, another innovative feature of the FT was its engine located at the rear.
This pattern, with the gun located in a mounted turret and the engine at the back, has become the standard for most succeeding tanks across the world even to this day. Germany fielded very few tanks during World War I , and started development only after encountering British tanks on the Somme. The A7V , the only type made, was introduced in March Plans to expand the tank programme were under way when the War ended.
Production of American-built tanks had just begun when the War came to an end. Italy also manufactured two Fiat s towards the end of the war, too late to see service. Russia independently built and trialed two prototypes early in the War; the tracked, two-man Vezdekhod and the huge Lebedenko , but neither went into production. A tracked self-propelled gun was also designed but not produced.
Although tank tactics developed rapidly during the war, piecemeal deployments, mechanical problems, and poor mobility limited the military significance of the tank in World War I, and the tank did not fulfil its promise of rendering trench warfare obsolete.
Nonetheless, it was clear to military thinkers on both sides that tanks in some way could have a significant role in future conflicts. In the interwar period tanks underwent further mechanical development. In terms of tactics, J. Fuller 's doctrine of spearhead attacks with massed tank formations was the basis for work by Heinz Guderian in Germany, Percy Hobart in Britain, Adna R.
Chaffee, Jr. Liddell Hart held a more moderate view that all arms — cavalry, infantry and artillery — should be mechanized and work together. The British formed the all-arms Experimental Mechanized Force to test the use of tanks with supporting forces.
In the Second World War only Germany would initially put the theory into practice on a large scale, and it was their superior tactics and French blunders, not superior weapons, that made the "blitzkrieg" so successful in May The primary lesson learned from this war was that machine gun armed tanks had to be equipped with cannon, with the associated armor inherent to modern tanks.
The five-month-long war between the Soviet Union and the Japanese 6th Army at Khalkhin Gol Nomonhan in brought home some lessons [ which? In this conflict, the Soviets fielded over two thousand tanks, to the around 73 cannon armed tanks deployed by the Japanese,  the major difference being that Japanese armor were equipped with diesel engines as opposed to the Russian tanks equipped with petrol engines. Prior to World War II, the tactics and strategy of deploying tank forces underwent a revolution.
In August , Soviet General Georgy Zhukov used the combined force of tanks and airpower at Nomonhan against the Japanese 6th Army;  Heinz Guderian , a tactical theoretician who was heavily involved in the formation of the first independent German tank force, said "Where tanks are, the front is", and this concept became a reality in World War II.
During World War II , the first conflict in which armored vehicles were critical to battlefield success, the tank and related tactics developed rapidly. Armored forces proved capable of tactical victory in an unprecedentedly short amount of time, yet new anti-tank weaponry showed that the tank was not invulnerable.
During the Invasion of Poland, tanks performed in a more traditional role in close cooperation with infantry units, but in the Battle of France deep independent armored penetrations were executed by the Germans, a technique later called blitzkrieg. Blitzkrieg used innovative combined arms tactics and radios in all of the tanks to provide a level of tactical flexibility and power that surpassed that of the Allied armor. The French Army , with tanks equal or superior to the German tanks in both quality and quantity, employed a linear defensive strategy in which the armored cavalry units were made subservient to the needs of the infantry armies to cover their entrenchment in Belgium.
In accordance with blitzkrieg methods, German tanks bypassed enemy strongpoints and could radio for close air support to destroy them, or leave them to the infantry.
A related development, motorized infantry , allowed some of the troops to keep up with the tanks and create highly mobile combined arms forces. The North African Campaign also provided an important battleground for tanks, as the flat, desolate terrain with relatively few obstacles or urban environments was ideal for conducting mobile armored warfare. However, this battlefield also showed the importance of logistics , especially in an armored force, as the principal warring armies, the German Afrika Korps and the British Eighth Army , often outpaced their supply trains in repeated attacks and counter-attacks on each other, resulting in complete stalemate.
However, interference from Adolf Hitler ,  the geographic scale of the conflict, the dogged resistance of the Soviet combat troops, and the Soviets' massive advantages in manpower and production capability prevented a repeat of the German successes of
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