What Is Stem Cell Therapy? How It Works In 2-Minutes
Jun 08, · Researchers have discovered several sources of stem cells: Embryonic stem cells. These stem cells come from embryos that are three to five days old. At this stage, an embryo is called a blastocyst and has Adult stem cells. These stem cells are found in . Human stem cells, cell and tissue generation. Perhaps the most important potential application of human stem cells is the generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies. Today, donated organs and tissues are often used to replace ailing or destroyed tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far Estimated Reading Time: 2 mins.
There are many ways in which human stem cells can be used in research and in the clinic. Studies of stem cells continue to yield information about their complex capabilities. A primary goal of this research ard to identify how undifferentiated stem cells become the differentiated cells that form the tissues and organs. Whwt know that turning genes on and off is central to this process.
Some of the most serious medical conditions, such as cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation. A more complete understanding of the genetic and molecular triggers of these conditions can yield information about how they arise and suggest new strategies how to learn ukulele strumming treat them.
Predictably controlling cell proliferation and differentiation requires additional basic research on the molecular and genetic signals that regulate cell division and specialization. While recent developments with induced pluripotent stem cells iPSCs suggest some of the specific factors that may be involved, techniques must be developed to introduce these arf safely into the cells and control the processes that are induced by these factors.
Human stem cells are also being used to test new drugs. New medications are tested for safety on differentiated cells generated from human pluripotent cell lines. Other kinds of cell lines have a long history of being used in this way. Cancer cell lines, for example, are used to screen potential anti-tumor drugs. The availability of pluripotent stem cells would allow drug testing on a wider range of cell types.
However, to screen drugs effectively, the conditions must be identical when comparing different drugs. Therefore, scientists must be able to precisely control the differentiation of stem cells into the specific cell type on which drugs will be tested. For some cell types and tissues, current knowledge of the signals controlling differentiation falls short of being able to mimic these conditions precisely to generate pure populations of differentiated cells for each drug being tested.
Perhaps the most important potential application of human stem cells is the generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies. Today, donated organs and tissues are often used to replace ailing or destroyed tissue, but the need for transplantable tissues and organs far outweighs the available supply.
Stem cells, directed to differentiate into specific cell types, offer the cellx of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat diseases including macular degeneration, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. What obstacles must still be overcome before these potential uses will be realized? April 24, What are the potential uses of human stem cells?
Human stem cells and drug testing Human stem cells are also being used to test new drugs. Human stem cells, cell and tissue generation Perhaps the most important potential application of human stem what does spoof number mean is the generation of cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based aer.
Tagged under: human stem cells. What you can read next The different types of stem cells and their current uses.
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Oct 19, · Scientists see many possible uses for stem cells. Tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration is probably the most important use of stem kristinfrey.com: Yvette Brazier. Dec 10, · Peripheral blood stem cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body and give the blood its color. Platelets are cell fragments that stop a person from bleeding and help the body to clot and heal when it is cut. Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell . Mar 29, · Stem cell, an undifferentiated cell that can divide to produce some offspring cells that continue as stem cells and some cells that are destined to differentiate (become specialized). Stem cells are an ongoing source of the differentiated cells that make .
Stem cell , an undifferentiated cell that can divide to produce some offspring cells that continue as stem cells and some cells that are destined to differentiate become specialized. Stem cells are an ongoing source of the differentiated cells that make up the tissues and organs of animals and plants.
There is great interest in stem cells because they have potential in the development of therapies for replacing defective or damaged cells resulting from a variety of disorders and injuries, such as Parkinson disease , heart disease , and diabetes. There are two major types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, which are also called tissue stem cells.
Embryonic stem cells often referred to as ES cells are stem cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of a mammalian embryo at a very early stage of development, when it is composed of a hollow sphere of dividing cells a blastocyst.
Embryonic stem cells from human embryos and from embryos of certain other mammalian species can be grown in tissue culture.
The most-studied embryonic stem cells are mouse embryonic stem cells, which were first reported in This type of stem cell can be cultured indefinitely in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor LIF , a glycoprotein cytokine.
If cultured mouse embryonic stem cells are injected into an early mouse embryo at the blastocyst stage, they will become integrated into the embryo and produce cells that differentiate into most or all of the tissue types that subsequently develop. This ability to repopulate mouse embryos is the key defining feature of embryonic stem cells, and because of it they are considered to be pluripotent —that is, able to give rise to any cell type of the adult organism.
If embryonic stem cells are grafted into an adult mouse, they will develop into a type of tumour called a teratoma , which contains a variety of differentiated tissue types.
Mouse embryonic stem cells are widely used to create genetically modified mice. This is done by introducing new genes into embryonic stem cells in tissue culture, selecting the particular genetic variant that is desired, and then inserting the genetically modified cells into mouse embryos.
As long as some of the chimeric mice have germ cells sperm or eggs that have been derived from the embryonic stem cells, it is possible to breed a line of mice that have the same genetic constitution as the embryonic stem cells and therefore incorporate the genetic modification that was made in vitro. This method has been used to produce thousands of new genetic lines of mice.
In many such genetic lines, individual genes have been ablated in order to study their biological function; in others, genes have been introduced that have the same mutations that are found in various human genetic diseases. Extensive experience with mouse embryonic stem cells made it possible for scientists to grow human embryonic stem cells from early human embryos, and the first human stem cell line was created in Human embryonic stem cells are in many respects similar to mouse embryonic stem cells, but they do not require LIF for their maintenance.
The human embryonic stem cells form a wide variety of differentiated tissues in vitro, and they form teratomas when grafted into immunosuppressed mice. Large quantities of cells, such as dopamine -secreting neurons for the treatment of Parkinson disease and insulin -secreting pancreatic beta cells for the treatment of diabetes , could be produced from embryonic stem cells for cell transplantation.
Cells for this purpose have previously been obtainable only from sources in very limited supply, such as the pancreatic beta cells obtained from the cadavers of human organ donors.
The use of human embryonic stem cells evokes ethical concerns, because the blastocyst -stage embryos are destroyed in the process of obtaining the stem cells. The embryos from which stem cells have been obtained are produced through in vitro fertilization , and people who consider preimplantation human embryos to be human beings generally believe that such work is morally wrong.
Others accept it because they regard the blastocysts to be simply balls of cells, and human cells used in laboratories have not previously been accorded any special moral or legal status.
Moreover, it is known that none of the cells of the inner cell mass are exclusively destined to become part of the embryo itself—all of the cells contribute some or all of their cell offspring to the placenta , which also has not been accorded any special legal status. The divergence of views on this issue is illustrated by the fact that the use of human embryonic stem cells is allowed in some countries and prohibited in others.
In the U. The therapy to be tested was known as GRNOPC1, which consisted of progenitor cells partially differentiated cells that, once inside the body, matured into neural cells known as oligodendrocytes. The therapy was designed for the restoration of nerve function in persons suffering from acute spinal cord injury. Embryonic germ EG cells, derived from primordial germ cells found in the gonadal ridge of a late embryo, have many of the properties of embryonic stem cells. The primordial germ cells in an embryo develop into stem cells that in an adult generate the reproductive gametes sperm or eggs.
In mice and humans it is possible to grow embryonic germ cells in tissue culture with the appropriate growth factors—namely, LIF and another cytokine called fibroblast growth factor. Stem cell. Article Introduction Embryonic stem cells Mouse embryonic stem cells Human embryonic stem cells Embryonic germ cells Adult stem cells Epithelial stem cells Bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells Neural stem cells Somatic cell nuclear transfer Induced pluripotent stem cells Show more.
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External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Jonathan M. Author of From Egg to Embryo. Neural and hematopoietic stem cells have tremendous potential in the development of therapies for certain diseases, such as diabetes and Parkinson disease.
Neural stem cells occur in the spinal cord and in specific regions of the brain, and hematopoietic stem cells occur in the blood and bone marrow.
Embryonic stem cells differentiating into neurons. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next Page.
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