Interesting facts about the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains, mountain range forming a rugged spine in west-central Russia and the major part of the traditional physiographic boundary between Europe and Asia. They extend some 1, miles (2, km) from the bend of the Ural River in the south to the low, severely eroded Pay-Khoy Ridge in the north. Russia - Russia - The Ural Mountains: A belt of low mountains and plateaus 1, to 1, feet ( to metres) high flanks the Ural Mountains proper along the eastern edge of the Russian Plain.
They serve as one of the boundaries that separates Asia from Europe. The range's highest peak is Russia's Mount Narodnaya, at 6, feet. It forms a natural mountain range that runs from the desert north of the Caspian Sea to moungains south of the Arctic tundra. The name Ural was given by 16th Century Russians after the words for "rock" and "belt" due to the chain's terrain how to disable windows 8 activation pop up mineral resources.
In fact, the name is deserving, as the mountain has substantial deposits of valuable minerals that have contributed to the Russian economy since the 18th Century. The Novgorod Republic claimed these areas as early astrading fur with the locals and gathering tributes from the Perm and Yugra populaces. The acquisition of the Ural Mountains also paved the way for the eventual annexation of Siberia mountqins a whole.
The 17th Century proved to be resourceful and prosperous for Russia and the area alike, as gemstones, copper ores, iron ores, and mica deposits were discovered in the mountains. Peter I of Russia Peter the Great is credited as having been a major mover and shaker in the area's economic history, as he developed mining and smelting facilities in Yegoshikha and Iset. For generations, Russian miners have gathered such minerals as copper, gold, iron, malachite, and alexandrite, among many precious stones, in the Urals.
Meanwhile, Russian indigenous peoples have longed hunted, fished, and gathered berries, mushrooms, and fruits from other regions around the Ural Mountains. The Urals also served as a military complex for Peter the Great as he waged war with Sweden. At the height of what to do if dentist makes a mistake Cold War, the Urals were also the site of the Soviet Union's nuclear production facility.
Today, the locatee mining industry still offers an attractive investment opportunity, as new teh deposits are still being discovered.
Steppes and forests dominate the Ural Mountains' topography, although a semi-desert environment occupies its southern portion in the Mughalzhar Hills. Where there are no rocky steppes, land is seen being cultivated for crops, and farming has allowed the local populace to prosper in the Urals. The Urals' forests are dominated by darker coniferous taiga in the western Urals, while in its southern flanks lighter coniferous forests thrive. Its northern forests have all types of firs, spruce, and what country is the ural mountains located. However, its polar forests olcated little more than cold-tolerant lichens and shrubs.
The area is also dotted with swamps and bogs. Biodiversity of flora and fauna in the region includes numerous examples of indigenous species typically found in other mountains of Siberia as well.
Among these, lynxes, brown bears, wolves, badgers, and polecats roam the landscape, while birds, snakes, and foxes also make an appearance on the scene.
The industrial areas that have developed in the Urals have contributed much of the economy of the area and the country as a whole, but have unfortunately also brought the demise of many plant and animal species in the area. The Mayak facility that produces plutonium has greatly affected the water quality of the lakes and rivers near it. Today, modern environmental agencies have created nine nature reserves in the Urals that include coumtry national wildlife parks.
However, park visitors may be subjected to radiation, as cleanup efforts still continue to make the area safer for humans and wildlife alike from the dangers of past mining and nuclear power and weapons endeavors, which were often conducted in irresponsible manners.
Ural Mountain ski slopes near Nizhny Tagil, Russia. Rolando Y. Wee April 25 in Environment. What Is A Cloud Forest? What Is A Carbon Sink? What Is Bycatch? The Water Cycle. Great Pacific Garbage Patch. What Is A Wetland?
Nov 26, · The Ural Mountains stretch from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural River and north western Kazakhstan. The Urals form part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia and are divided into 5 sections. The Urals is a common geographical name of the area of Russia around the Ural Mountains. It is a vast territory which includes major cities like Yekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk, as well as parts of . == == The Ural Mountains are located mostly in Russia, with the southern end in Kazakhstan. The range is considered to mark the continental border between .
Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic Ocean. The mountains lie within the Ural geographical region and significantly overlap with the Ural Federal District and with the Ural economic region.
They have rich resources, including metal ores, coal, and precious and semi-precious stones. Since the 18th century the mountains have contributed significantly to the mineral sector of the Russian economy. As attested by Sigismund von Herberstein , in the 16th century Russians called the Ural range by a variety of names derived from the Russian words for rock stone and belt.
It might have been borrowed from either Turkic "stone belt"  Bashkir , where the same name is used for the range , or Ob-Ugric. Tatischev believes that this oronym is set to "belt" and associates it with the Turkic verb oralu- "gird".
Dobrodomov suggests a transition from Aral to Ural explained on the basis of ancient Bulgar - Chuvash dialects. Geographer E. Hawks believes that the name goes back to the Bashkir folklore Ural-Batyr. As Middle-Eastern merchants traded with the Bashkirs and other people living on the western slopes of the Ural as far north as Great Perm , since at least the 10th century medieval mideastern geographers had been aware of the existence of the mountain range in its entirety, stretching as far as the Arctic Ocean in the north.
The first Russian mention of the mountains to the east of the East European Plain is provided by the Primary Chronicle , where it describes the Novgorodian expedition to the upper reaches of the Pechora in During the next few centuries Novgorodians engaged in fur trading with the local population and collected tribute from Yugra and Great Perm, slowly expanding southwards.
The rivers Chusovaya and Belaya were first mentioned in the chronicles of and , respectively. In , the town of Solikamsk Kama Salt was founded on the Kama at the foothills of the Ural, where salt was produced in open pans. With the excursions of and — across the Ural, Moscow managed to subjugate Yugra completely.
Only after Sigismund von Herberstein in his Notes on Muscovite Affairs had reported, following Russian sources, that there are mountains behind the Pechora and identified them with the Riphean Mountains and Hyperboreans of ancient authors, did the existence of the Ural, or at least of its northern part, become firmly established in the Western geography. The Middle and Southern Ural were still largely unavailable and unknown to the Russian or Western European geographers. In the s, after the Tsardom of Russia had defeated the Khanate of Kazan and proceeded to gradually annex the lands of the Bashkirs, the Russians finally reached the southern part of the mountain chain.
In they founded Ufa. The upper reaches of the Kama and Chusovaya in the Middle Ural, still unexplored, as well as parts of Transuralia still held by the hostile Siberian Khanate , were granted to the Stroganovs by several decrees of the tsar in — The Stroganovs' land provided the staging ground for Yermak 's incursion into Siberia.
Yermak crossed the Ural from the Chusovaya to the Tagil around In Babinov's road was built across the Ural from Solikamsk to the valley of the Tura , where the town of Verkhoturye Upper Tura was founded in Customs was established in Verkhoturye shortly thereafter and the road was made the only legal connection between European Russia and Siberia for a long time.
In the town of Kungur was founded at the western foothills of the Middle Ural. During the 17th century the first deposits of iron and copper ores, mica , gemstones and other minerals were discovered in the Ural. Iron and copper smelting works emerged. They multiplied particularly quickly during the reign of Peter I of Russia. In — he commissioned Vasily Tatishchev to oversee and develop the mining and smelting works in the Ural.
Tatishchev proposed a new copper smelting factory in Yegoshikha , which would eventually become the core of the city of Perm and a new iron smelting factory on the Iset , which would become the largest in the world at the time of construction and give birth to the city of Yekaterinburg. Both factories were actually founded by Tatishchev's successor, Georg Wilhelm de Gennin , in Tatishchev returned to the Ural on the order of Empress Anna to succeed de Gennin in — Transportation of the output of the smelting works to the markets of European Russia necessitated the construction of the Siberian Route from Yekaterinburg across the Ural to Kungur and Yegoshikha Perm and further to Moscow, which was completed in and rendered Babinov's road obsolete.
In gold was discovered in the Ural at Beryozovskoye and later at other deposits. It has been mined since The first ample geographic survey of the Ural Mountains was completed in the early 18th century by the Russian historian and geographer Vasily Tatishchev under the orders of Peter I. Earlier, in the 17th century, rich ore deposits were discovered in the mountains and their systematic extraction began in the early 18th century, eventually turning the region into the largest mineral base of Russia.
One of the first scientific descriptions of the mountains was published in — In a railway linked Ufa and Chelyabinsk via Zlatoust. In this section became a part of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
In yet another railway connecting Perm and Yekaterinburg passed through Kungur by the way of the Siberian Route. It has eventually replaced the Ufa — Chelyabinsk section as the main trunk of the Trans-Siberian railway.
The highest peak of the Ural, Mount Narodnaya , elevation 1, m 6, ft was identified in During the Soviet industrialization in the s the city of Magnitogorsk was founded in the South-Eastern Ural as a center of iron smelting and steelmaking. During the German invasion of the Soviet Union in —, the mountains became a key element in Nazi planning for the territories which they expected to conquer in the USSR.
Faced with the threat of having a significant part of the Soviet territories occupied by the enemy, the government evacuated many of the industrial enterprises of European Russia and Ukraine to the eastern foothills of the Ural, considered a safe place out of reach of the German bombers and troops.
Three giant tank factories were established at the Uralmash in Sverdlovsk as Yekaterinburg used to be known , Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil, and Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant in Chelyabinsk. After the war, in —, Chum — Labytnangi railway, built with the forced labor of Gulag inmates, crossed the Polar Ural.
Mayak , km southeast of Yekaterinburg , was a center of the Soviet nuclear industry     and site of the Kyshtym disaster. Vaygach Island and the island of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain on the north. Geographically this range marks the northern part of the border between Europe and Asia. Its highest peak is Mount Narodnaya, approximately 1, m 6, ft in elevation. The Polar Urals extend for about kilometers mi from Mount Konstantinov Kamen in the north to the river Khulga in the south; they have an area of about 25, km 2 9, sq mi and a strongly dissected relief.
The maximum height is 1, m 4, ft at Payer Mountain and the average height is 1, to 1, m 3, to 3, ft. The mountains of the Polar Ural have exposed rock with sharp ridges, though flattened or rounded tops are also found. They include the highest peaks of the range: Mount Narodnaya 1, m 6, ft , Mount Karpinsky 1, m 6, ft and Manaraga 1, m 5, ft.
They extend for more than km mi south to the Shchugor. The many ridges are sawtooth shaped and dissected by river valleys. Both Polar and Nether-Polar Urals are typically Alpine; they bear traces of Pleistocene glaciation, along with permafrost and extensive modern glaciation, including extant glaciers.
The Northern Ural consist of a series of parallel ridges up to 1,—1, m 3,—3, ft in height and longitudinal hollows. They are elongated from north to south and stretch for about km mi from the river Usa. Most of the tops are flattened, but those of the highest mountains, such as Telposiz, 1, m 5, ft and Konzhakovsky Stone, 1, m 5, ft have a dissected topography. Intensive weathering has produced vast areas of eroded stone on the mountain slopes and summits of the northern areas.
The Central Ural are the lowest part of the Ural, with smooth mountain tops, the highest mountain being m 3, ft Basegi ; they extend south from the river Ufa. The relief of the Southern Ural is more complex, with numerous valleys and parallel ridges directed south-west and meridionally.
The range includes the Ilmensky Mountains separated from the main ridges by the Miass. The maximum height is 1, m 5, ft Mount Yamantau and the width reaches km mi.
The Southern Urals extend some km mi up to the sharp westward bend of the river Ural and terminate in the wide Mughalzhar Hills. The Urals are among the world's oldest extant mountain ranges. For its age of to million years, the elevation of the mountains is unusually high. They formed during the Uralian orogeny due to the collision of the eastern edge of the supercontinent Laurasia with the young and rheologically weak continent of Kazakhstania , which now underlies much of Kazakhstan and West Siberia west of the Irtysh , and intervening island arcs.
The collision lasted nearly 90 million years in the late Carboniferous — early Triassic. Many deformed and metamorphosed rocks, mostly of Paleozoic age, surface within the Urals. The sedimentary and volcanic layers are folded and faulted. The sediments to the west of the Ural Mountains are formed of limestone , dolomite and sandstone left from ancient shallow seas.
The eastern side is dominated by basalts. The western slope of the Ural Mountains has predominantly karst topography , especially in the Sylva basin, which is a tributary of the Chusovaya. It is composed of severely eroded sedimentary rocks sandstones and limestones that are about million years old. There are many caves , sinkholes and underground streams. The karst topography is much less developed on the eastern slopes.
The eastern slopes are relatively flat, with some hills and rocky outcrops and contain alternating volcanic and sedimentary layers dated to the middle Paleozoic Era. The river valleys are underlain by limestone.
The Ural Mountains contain about 48 species of economically valuable ores and economically valuable minerals. Eastern regions are rich in chalcopyrite , nickel oxide , gold , platinum , chromite and magnetite ores, as well as in coal Chelyabinsk Oblast , bauxite , talc , fireclay and abrasives. The Western Urals contain deposits of coal, oil, natural gas Ishimbay and Krasnokamsk areas and potassium salts. Both slopes are rich in bituminous coal and lignite , and the largest deposit of bituminous coal is in the north Pechora field.
The specialty of the Urals is precious and semi-precious stones, such as emerald , amethyst , aquamarine , jasper , rhodonite , malachite and diamond. Some of the deposits, such as the magnetite ores at Magnitogorsk , are already nearly depleted.
Many rivers originate in the Ural Mountains. The tributaries of the Kama include the Vishera , Chusovaya, and Belaya and originate on both the eastern and western slopes. The rivers are frozen for more than half the year. Generally, the western rivers have higher flow volume than the eastern ones, especially in the Northern and Nether-Polar regions.
Rivers are slower in the Southern Urals. This is because of low precipitation and the relatively warm climate resulting in less snow and more evaporation. The mountains contain a number of deep lakes. Lake Bolshoye Shchuchye, the deepest lake in the Polar Urals, is meters ft deep. Other lakes, too, are found in the glacial valleys of this region.
Spas and sanatoriums have been built to take advantage of the medicinal muds found in some of the mountain lakes.
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