Direct Fuel Injection
In the injector system, fuel injection into the airflow is performed by special injectors located either in place of the carburetor (intake manifold) – “mono injection”, or near the intake valve of each cylinder (usually structurally in the intake manifold) – “distributed injection” (aka multi-point “manifold”), or . Nov 24, · Direct fuel injection systems (also called port fuel injection) have injectors delivering fuel right into the individual combustion chambers and have at least one injector per cylinder. Mechanical fuel injection. Just like with wrist watches, fuel injection can work electronically or Author: Ian Swan.
The fuel system is responsible for supplying fuel to the internal combustion engine. The fuel mixes together with air and then the spark plugs ignite the mixture to create the combustion power which moves the vehicle. After you fill up your gas tank with fuel, there what is the scada system a system in place which transfers that fuel to the engine when it is needed. The more demand you put on your engine, the more fuel that it needs to receive.
The car fuel system is comprised of several different components to make this entire process happen smoothly. There is a fuel pump, fuel tank, fuel lines, fuel filter, fuel injectors, and carburetor. It is really no different than the heart, veins, and kidneys of your body working together to keep you moving. If just one of these components were to malfunction, it could interfere with the entire fuel transferring process. Then your engine would either not function at all, or it what county is newport coast ca in function very slowly.
Below is a list of the components of a car fuel system. If you notice wear and tear on any of these components, then you should replace them immediately to prevent problems with your vehicle.
A lot of newer cars have the pump inside the tank. If you have an older vehicle, you might find the fuel pump positioned in the middle of the engine and fuel tank.
It may also be connected right on the engine as well. The job of the fuel pump is to pump fuel into the engine. You probably have an electric pump powered by the car battery if the pump is inside the fuel tank. When you pump fuel into your vehicle, the fuel is going into your fuel tank. This is where your fuel is stored before it is pumped to the internal combustion chamber.
You might also find the fuel pump and emissions technology inside of it as well. The fuel filter is usually positioned around the fuel pump, either before or after it. When the fuel gets pumped from the fuel tank, any tiny particles and contaminants in it are blocked by the filter before the fuel enters the engine.
Whenever you step on the gas or put more demand on the engine, a small electric valve is signaled to open and allow fuel to enter the internal combustion chamber. When the demand is over with, the valve is signaled to close. This valve is basically the fuel injector of the vehicle.
On older cars which are not fuel-injected, a carburetor is the component which is responsible for mixing the fuel and air together. After the mixture takes place, it is sent to the combustion chamber where the spark plug ignites it. Fuel lines are how the fuel can travel from one component to another. They are how fuel travels from the fuel tank to the carburetor, for example. I was looking to that part that is placed over the fuel injectors like a crown. Are you talking about the fuel rail?
Facebook Pinterest Twitter.
The What and How of the Fuel Delivering Technology
Jan 04, · A fuel injector is nothing but an electronically controlled valve. It is supplied with pressurized fuel by the fuel pump in your car, and it is capable of opening and closing many times per second. Inside a fuel injectorAuthor: Karim Nice. Jan 13, · Direct fuel injection is a fuel-delivery technology that allows gasoline engines to burn fuel more efficiently, resulting in more power, cleaner emissions, and increased fuel economy. Jul 17, · As a result, car manufacturers responded by creating fuel injection systems that made it much easier for cars to figure out how much fuel to use, thus cutting down on the amount of fuel that cars went through on a regular basis.
In trying to keep up with emissions and fuel efficiency laws, the fuel system used in modern cars has changed a lot over the years. The Subaru Justy was the last car sold in the United States to have a carburetor ; the following model year, the Justy had fuel injection. But fuel injection has been around since the s, and electronic fuel injection was used widely on European cars starting around Now, all cars sold in the United States have fuel injection systems.
On many other machines, such as lawnmowers and chainsaws , it still is. But as the automobile evolved, the carburetor got more and more complicated trying to handle all of the operating requirements. For instance, to handle some of these tasks, carburetors had five different circuits:. In order to meet stricter emissions requirements, catalytic converters were introduced. Very careful control of the air-to-fuel ratio was required for the catalytic converter to be effective.
Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of oxygen in the exhaust, and the engine control unit ECU uses this information to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in real-time. This is called closed loop control -- it was not feasible to achieve this control with carburetors.
There was a brief period of electrically controlled carburetors before fuel injection systems took over, but these electrical carbs were even more complicated than the purely mechanical ones. At first, carburetors were replaced with throttle body fuel injection systems also known as single point or central fuel injection systems that incorporated electrically controlled fuel-injector valves into the throttle body.
These were almost a bolt-in replacement for the carburetor, so the automakers didn't have to make any drastic changes to their engine designs. Gradually, as new engines were designed, throttle body fuel injection was replaced by multi-port fuel injection also known as port , multi-point or sequential fuel injection.
These systems have a fuel injector for each cylinder, usually located so that they spray right at the intake valve. These systems provide more accurate fuel metering and quicker response. The gas pedal in your car is connected to the throttle valve -- this is the valve that regulates how much air enters the engine. So the gas pedal is really the air pedal. When you step on the gas pedal, the throttle valve opens up more, letting in more air.
The engine control unit ECU, the computer that controls all of the electronic components on your engine "sees" the throttle valve open and increases the fuel rate in anticipation of more air entering the engine. It is important to increase the fuel rate as soon as the throttle valve opens; otherwise, when the gas pedal is first pressed, there may be a hesitation as some air reaches the cylinders without enough fuel in it. Sensors monitor the mass of air entering the engine, as well as the amount of oxygen in the exhaust.
The ECU uses this information to fine-tune the fuel delivery so that the air-to-fuel ratio is just right. Inside a fuel injector. When the injector is energized, an electromagnet moves a plunger that opens the valve, allowing the pressurized fuel to squirt out through a tiny nozzle.
The nozzle is designed to atomize the fuel -- to make as fine a mist as possible so that it can burn easily. A fuel injector firing. The amount of fuel supplied to the engine is determined by the amount of time the fuel injector stays open. This is called the pulse width , and it is controlled by the ECU.
Fuel injectors mounted in the intake manifold of the engine. The injectors are mounted in the intake manifold so that they spray fuel directly at the intake valves.
A pipe called the fuel rail supplies pressurized fuel to all of the injectors. In this picture, you can see three of the injectors. The fuel rail is the pipe on the left. In order to provide the right amount of fuel, the engine control unit is equipped with a whole lot of sensors. Let's take a look at some of them. Here are just a few:. There are two main types of control for multi-port systems: The fuel injectors can all open at the same time, or each one can open just before the intake valve for its cylinder opens this is called sequential multi-port fuel injection.
The advantage of sequential fuel injection is that if the driver makes a sudden change, the system can respond more quickly because from the time the change is made, it only has to wait only until the next intake valve opens, instead of for the next complete revolution of the engine. The software has to allow the car to satisfy emissions requirements for , miles, meet EPA fuel economy requirements and protect engines against abuse.
And there are dozens of other requirements to meet as well. The engine control unit uses a formula and a large number of lookup tables to determine the pulse width for given operating conditions. The equation will be a series of many factors multiplied by each other.
Many of these factors will come from lookup tables. We'll go through a simplified calculation of the fuel injector pulse width. In this example, our equation will only have three factors, whereas a real control system might have a hundred or more.
In order to calculate the pulse width, the ECU first looks up the base pulse width in a lookup table. Base pulse width is a function of engine speed RPM and load which can be calculated from manifold absolute pressure.
Let's say the engine speed is 2, RPM and load is 4. We find the number at the intersection of 2, and 4, which is 8 milliseconds. In the next examples, A and B are parameters that come from sensors. Let's say that A is coolant temperature and B is oxygen level. From this example, you can see how the control system makes adjustments. With parameter B as the level of oxygen in the exhaust, the lookup table for B is the point at which there is according to engine designers too much oxygen in the exhaust; and accordingly, the ECU cuts back on the fuel.
Real control systems may have more than parameters, each with its own lookup table. Some of the parameters even change over time in order to compensate for changes in the performance of engine components like the catalytic converter. And depending on the engine speed, the ECU may have to do these calculations over a hundred times per second.
Performance Chips This leads us to our discussion of performance chips. Now that we understand a little bit about how the control algorithms in the ECU work, we can understand what performance-chip makers do to get more power out of the engine. Performance chips are made by aftermarket companies, and are used to boost engine power. There is a chip in the ECU that holds all of the lookup tables; the performance chip replaces this chip.
The tables in the performance chip will contain values that result in higher fuel rates during certain driving conditions. For instance, they may supply more fuel at full throttle at every engine speed. They may also change the spark timing there are lookup tables for that, too.
Since the performance-chip makers are not as concerned with issues like reliability, mileage and emissions controls as the carmakers are, they use more aggressive settings in the fuel maps of their performance chips. For more information on fuel injection systems and other automotive topics, check out the links on the next page. Under the Hood. Engine Performance.
How Fuel Injection Systems Work. By: Karim Nice. A typical electronic fuel injector. See more car engine pictures. For instance, to handle some of these tasks, carburetors had five different circuits: Main circuit - Provides just enough fuel for fuel-efficient cruising Idle circuit - Provides just enough fuel to keep the engine idling Accelerator pump - Provides an extra burst of fuel when the accelerator pedal is first depressed, reducing hesitation before the engine speeds up Power enrichment circuit - Provides extra fuel when the car is going up a hill or towing a trailer Choke - Provides extra fuel when the engine is cold so that it will start In order to meet stricter emissions requirements, catalytic converters were introduced.
When You Step on the Gas The gas pedal in your car is connected to the throttle valve -- this is the valve that regulates how much air enters the engine. A partially open throttle valve. Inside a fuel injector When the injector is energized, an electromagnet moves a plunger that opens the valve, allowing the pressurized fuel to squirt out through a tiny nozzle. A fuel injector firing The amount of fuel supplied to the engine is determined by the amount of time the fuel injector stays open.
Fuel injectors mounted in the intake manifold of the engine The injectors are mounted in the intake manifold so that they spray fuel directly at the intake valves. Engine speed sensor - Monitors engine speed, which is one of the factors used to calculate the pulse width There are two main types of control for multi-port systems: The fuel injectors can all open at the same time, or each one can open just before the intake valve for its cylinder opens this is called sequential multi-port fuel injection.
RPM Load 1 2 3 4 5 1, 1 2 3 4 5 2, 2 4 6 8 10 3, 3 6 9 12 15 4, 4 8 12 16 20 In the next examples, A and B are parameters that come from sensors. An aftermarket fuel injection conversion kit can replace a carburetor with fuel injectors. How much does a fuel injection conversion system cost? Does fuel injection increase horsepower?
Depending on your engine, fuel injection can add 10 to 20 horsepower. Do old cars have fuel injectors? Prior to , most cars in the United States had a carburetor, not fuel injectors, though fuel injection has been around since the s and has been used widely on European cars since What are the different types of fuel injection systems? Modern fuel injection includes four basic types: single point, multi-port, sequential and direct injection. Cite This! More Awesome Stuff.
<- How to make a meat roll - What is the implied consent law in california->